How to Be Prepared for and Manage Disaster
Due to the migration of people from rural to urban areas, cities and municipalities all over the world are at risk because of the development of tall buildings, thicker population, more overhead power cables, and crowded living conditions. A great disaster is awaiting these urban areas due to the increase in the number of industries, oil storage tanks and pipelines including natural calamities such as earthquakes and landslides. Recently, we have seen that in several parts of the world that experienced a lot of disasters, people have varying levels of preparedness and ways of responding to these disasters. In the concept of mitigation, activities and measures included are put in place in order to minimize the disaster’s effects and impact. In addition to this, the physical, economic, and social effects or impacts of disaster to a given population or area are covered. In comparison to places that lack correct preparedness, as shown in history, having adequate preparation can greatly mitigate the effects of these disasters. Many angles and aspects are involved depending on the locality and the community concerned. The two categories for these measures are called structural and non-structural.
Further, these preparedness measures of mitigating disasters, whether structural or non-structural, may be either passive or active. Active measures may include the reward system where incentives are provided to individuals or organizations that implement disaster preparedness measures such as creating disaster ready environments. Unlike the passive measures which depend on guidelines and controls, the active measures are found to be more effective. This is proven by the fact that city planning codes and rules which are based on the law lack effectiveness unless thoroughly implemented with the strong participation of the owners of buildings. To do the trick, subsidies and lower insurance premiums can be offered for better and safer constructions.
When disasters happen, the government and the local authorities need to have preparedness efforts to clear structures for handling. It is important to have simple and easy plans and policies for implementation by the disaster preparedness and management unit. The requirement is to increase the knowledge of the people and organizations and the warning systems should be properly positioned and monitored on a regular basis including a well planned use of land. When planning for a disaster is not properly done or is not considered, chaotic events will occur such as fires and it will make vehicles such as fire trucks and ambulances difficult to reach the victim due to impassable roads. Pre planning must always be made or done because without it, the disaster response post disaster management will be one of the most challenging and difficult part or task.
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